We begin our little journey from the tenth canto of hell Dante. We stepped through the doors of the city of Dis, we are in the sixth circle. The inhabitants of the valley are the tetra Epicurean eretici: they have not believed in life everlasting, They are deluded that existed only matter. Then just keep to the matter - Thinks the poet - when there will be the Last Judgement, you will be locked in the tombs forever: dead between dead.
The sentence is heresy, nothing. But let's go see more closely what he was doing and thought our philosopher He condemned with all his followers, contemporary and not, no chance for redemption. Epicurus She taught in a garden of his property between the fourth and third centuries BC. .
For many centuries dominated a distorted view of philosophy epicurea, which it has been associated with debauchery and lust, until in the seventeenth century, Peter Gassendi, Catholic priest broadminded, seek to harmonize the Epicurean atomism and physical Galilean with the precepts of Christianity. since that moment, the interest for this philosopher They have multiplied: leading to delineate, although most of his works have been lost, a more adequate and real picture of what was be his thought.
Its doctrine is not addressed only to specialists, but it was open to all. the purpose, unlike what happened in the academic centers most important era, It was purely practical: cure the troubles of 'soul. Far from 'hedonism, which is often mistakenly approached, about philosophy Epicurean has set a goal of life the achievement of pleasure, but the problem, or better the solution, It is to understand what he means by "pleasureʱ??. Surely not the carnal or sexual. The pleasure is the absence of disturbances of 'soul. Absence of body pains.
This is simply because Epicurus part from the assumption that the life is bella: itself is a pleasure; breathing is happiness, gives a sense of fullness do not try anything, just knowing how to enjoy life.
This is the central pivot of ' Epicureismo: do not you worry in unnecessary problems and disorders, enjoy the fact of being in the world. At the same time you have to enjoy moderate physical pleasures, but only if they give relief, not when, after stopping the effect, bring us into a state of anxiety.
The pleasures of the senses are called kinetic because they give satisfactions that disappear soon and soon, must resume search pleasure, then satisfy it and then look back into a chain that never ends. These are opposed to the pleasure catastematico (static) instead it is the absence of disturbances mentioned earlier: in technical terms Apon (absence of diseases of the body), atarassia (absence of disturbances of 'soul).
In poche words what is necessary and natural is feed, or little more. Fine dining, it is no sin, but it could alienate the absence of disturbances: addictive, other wishes, need money....
as to life social, the ethical aspect is not abandoned, rather it is central. Per be happy you be virtuosos. Laws must be respected, but it is best to stay as far away from politics and life public: the only human relationship that gives fullness is the ' friendship. share a life serene with friends, help each other, talk and exchange views on issues that may give disturbance.
"About the 'friendship… Epicurus It puts it this way: of all the things that the prosecution wisdom in view of life happy, there is nothing of larger dell 'friendship, nothing richer and more pleasing. This, Epicurus himself has not tried it with words only, but with his own life, his actions, his costume…ʱ?? (6)
A few centuries later, out Comedy, Dante Alighieri (Prior to Florence) the 24 June 1300 He sends his best in exile friend Guido Cavalcanti with the leaders of the factions of whites and blacks Guelphs because of clashes in the congregation itself. In Exile, l’friend Cavalcanti, He dies after contracting malaria.
The poet surely will have had his reasons for doing so. Even in this post, I will not make moral judgments, but simply to offer food for thought. Essentially participation in a life active policy, It involves these risks. So while Epicurus recommended a life "Concealed", Dante He was accused of cowardice who had not been deployed.