To understand Policy Plato, must leave from conception Plato ha dell’soul and dell 'uomo.
The key issue is the dualism soul/body. These two entities are quite separate and antithetical.
L’soul is the pure part of the 'uomo, the copro is murky.
“L’soul It is in the highest degree similar to that which is divine,immortal,intelligible,uniform,indissoluble,always identical to themselves, while the body is in the highest degree similar to what is human, deadly, multiforme, inintelligibile, dissolvable and never identical to themselves ":
"Indeed, the body gives us countless concerns need nourishment; and then diseases, when they crash down, we prevent search dell’be. Also, it fills us with passions,loves, fears, ghosts of all kinds and many vanity, so that, as they say, really, his fault, there is not even possible to think safely anything. Indeed, war, riots and battles are not produced from nothing but from the body and its passions. All wars arise for lust for riches and the riches we have to need procacciarle because of the body, because we are enslaved by the care of the body. "
So first and foremost a good State's what cure the soul and he keeps at bay the body and its volition. The State must provide for the maintenance of citizens, but avoid excesses. È richiesta moderation nei piaceri carnali e frugalità nell’alimentazione.
The government needs to educate citizens and if necessary intervene in authoritarian mdo, to prevent the wishes Body take over on 'soul.
But the same soul, actually, not united. It is divided into very different parts between them: concupiscent, irascible and rational.
The soul concupiscible it is the soul that lusteth to the realization of something. La sua virtue and the temperance.
The irascible soul He wants to fight. La sua virtue and the courage.
The rational soul It is one that but the thought. La sua virtue and the truth.
"As we have said many times that we were placed in three species of blood in three different places, each with its own movements, even so now you have to say as briefly that one of them, that is idle and let stand his movements, It becomes necessarily the weakest, and that which instead is exercised, the strongest: and therefore care must be taken that there is a proportion between their movements. (I'm afraid, 89 is 90 d)
As body image, Plato He divides the state into three classes he calls functions, since the members are distinguished only by the tasks are assigned, but they have equal rights. Tutte e tre le classi sono indispensabili nello svolgere fine quello che gli compete.
And so the 'soul concupiscible is best suited to job productive. L’soul irascible is more suited to the defense of the city. The rational soul is that of Philosophy that must govern. Why the Philosophy?
Naively (but perhaps not too fake), we could say why Plato it's a philosopher and fell into the same error that Socrates He had so criticized: think that their discipline is the only one who can understand the truth, while the others are lower than the.
More benign, we could say that the philosopher, as disinterested lover of know and reason, is able to determine the truth ed, In terms platonici, is the only one can grasp the idea of Fine: the philosopher It is the only real political.