Previous: The life of Socrates
Il messaggio di Socrates e la condanna
Year 423 a.c. It is a key year for the life of Socrates (which has about 46 years): He is actively involved in negative Comedy Aristophanes, Clouds.
Strepsiade, one of the main characters of the Clouds, It is a vulgar type, amoral and indifferent to the dramatic events that struck the city of Athens. Egli è incentrato solo sui propri problemi personali e rappresenta allegoricamente il tipico ateniese medio del time. Strepsiades is caught between two fires: a son che sperpera le sue fortune in cavalli da corsa ed una moglie aristocratica, lover of luxury and perfumes.
The son Filippide, a bit 'weird, It combines a trouble after another. at the end, Strepsiades decides to send him to the think tank of Socrates. The son ha repulsione per le figure bizzarre e misere che frequentano il pensatoio e rifiuta di andarci.
Strepsiade, desperate, decide di andare egli stesso a scuola da Socrates.
But already from the start, It emerges as Aristophanes had confused activity Socrates with the sophistry:
“Di essays spiriti è pieno il pensatoio. People who live here who convinces you, by dint of talking,that heaven is an oven, arranged around us, while we are the coals [for the Greeks, the sun was a god]. Their, as long as you pay them, taught to win good causes and lost: with the talk. "Clouds - Aristophanes
The figure of Socrates is, a dir poco, grotesque and embarrassing: It appears in a basket suspended above the stage, intent on observing the clouds.
Strepsiades observes activities wacky thinkers: "They look for that there is underground", They look at the sky, explain atmospheric phenomena, study "jumping flea", in short, an interest in natural phenomena including through physical experiments.
Fino a far affermare a Socrates:
"That Zeus? Stop this nonsense:Zeus does not exist!ʱ??
In these circumstances, it is noted that the thought of Socrates She has been influenced by research Anassagora, the greatest scientist of the time (convicted of impiety in 432). Both rattled deities, because investigating the physical nature and examined critically the notion of truth then accepted. They said that the sun is fire and the moon stone. The rain was not due to the anger of the gods, but in certain physical conditions. A Socrates fisico, but it is ready to curb the arrogance of physicists, quando pensano che la fisica sia l’unica disciplina in grado di spiegare tutto sul world.
Strepsiade, anche se è inquietato dai Philosophy del pensatoio, convince Filippide a prendere lezioni da Socrates. Thing, at the end, the backfire. After class, Filippide convince, by giving precedence to the discourse on the strong weak, che battere i genitori è una cosa giusta e passa dalla words ai fatti.
Quindi nelle nuvole viene messo in scena un Socrates opposto a quello platonico. This comedy was one of the main factors that led to the condanna di Socrates in 399 a.c.
Actually the clouds part in a competition in which, altre due commedie erano una parodia di Socrates: a real fury!
Probably caused by political motives: some of the members of the circle of Socrates were filospartani.
in this period, Athens splits in two, between oligarchic tendencies (backed by Sparta) and democratic, preying on the population.
Economic problems and the dangers caused by continued war, Athens had led to an ideological crisis. Le leggi morali e securities si stavano dissolvevano e la corruption dilagava.
L’meeting di correnti filosofiche completamente differenti accresceva la confusione. I sofisti, active mainly in the legal and political; the mystical currents (like that of Parmenides of Elea) che sostenevano la search dell’be e dell’unità; i Philosophy della natura che cercavano di porre al centro l’indagine fisica (Anassagora).
In such a "fuss philosophical", trends more conservative (like those of Aristophanes) saw, in those who challenged the old beliefs, a grave danger. In all this we go to see a Socrates innovator, it does not propose ideas fossilized, but search aperta al dubbio. Probably, la sua philosophy, represents the fusion of all instances philosophical contemporary.
While the void left by divine revelation was not filled by sofisti, convinti che la truth non esistesse, Socrate tentava di spostare l’asse della truth su un piano umano: it was the 'divine inspiration to give truth speeches, the ma logic dialectic-discorsiva.
In this tangled situation, Socrates was the most dangerous among thinkers.
Probably, beyond this, l’uomo Socrate non si rese molto simpatico agli occhi di alcuni ateniesi. In the Apology of Socrates, written by Plato per rendere justice al suo maestro, Socrate racconta che un suo friend di nome Cherofonte, he asked the oracle at Delphi if there was anyone wiser than Socrates. And the oracle replied that Socrates was the wisest of all men. Failing to understand why, because he felt ignorant, begins to investigate.
First of all he went by politicians, che per via della loro posizione avrebbero dovuto be i più sapienti.
After meeting the first politician seemed: "That enjoyed a reputation for skillful at many other men and above all that he himself considered that the, even if, actually, it was not at all. E quindi cercai di dimostrargli che credeva di be sapiente, but that instead it was not.
Consequently, I made enemies both he and many of those who were present. And as I left, then drew the conclusions that, rispetto a quest’uomo, I was wiser. Si dava il case, indeed, che né l’uno né l’altro di noi due sapesse niente di beautiful né di good; but he was convinced know while he did not know, and yet I did not know how, così neppure credevo di know.ʱ??