Previous: Introduction to the thought of Socrates
His Socrates There are four main sources: Plato, Xenophon, Aristotle, Aristophanes.
Each of these sources gives a portrait of the character Socrates quite different from the others.
Plato, who chose him as the star of all his dialogues (apart from the Read), è allievo e friend of Socrates is, probably, the one who best understood his thinking. The criticism ritiene che il Socrates dialogue is platonizzato. in my opinion, sarebbe meglio dire che il Plato dei primi dialoghi è socratizzato. in each case, the two figures are almost indistinguishable.
“Le Nuvole” è il titolo di una commedia di Aristofane che ha per protagonista Socrates. In the Clouds, Socrates è rappresentato come un sofista, but quite weird and quirky and selfless earthly things, although it teaches how to prevail on others to get rich.
Aristotle conosce Socrates only from the philosophical point of view, through Plato.
The Socrates di Senofonte (historic greek) It is moralizing and caustic. Since its Apology, esce un ritratto si Socrates alquanto diverso da quello tratteggiato da Plato.
Le difficoltà affrontate nella ricostruzione del pensiero Socratic sono dovute alle differenti visuali delle fonti. It seems that everyone has seen Socrates with his eyes. Questo è uno dei problemi che derivano dalla scelta di non lasciare anything di scritto e dalla stessa forma “aperta” della philosophy Socratic. Socrates was well aware that his seed would give fruit, ma è proprio questa la sua beauty.
The only one who had the opportunity to understand the whole philosophical message of Socrates, is Plato (escluso Aristotle che però lo conosceva indirettamente e che comunque non la avrebbe mai capito come Plato). Plato era anche l’unico che poteva capire l’uomo Socrates.
La sua sensibilità philosophy e filantropica ci hanno dato un quadro abbastanza attendibile della figura socratica.
Socrates It born in Apolece in 469 a.c., demi one of the largest and most populous of Athens. The mother was a levatrice Fenarete (to which Socrates claimed to have learned the art of giving birth) , his father was a marble worker Sophroniscus. His family was wealthy, but it did not belong to the circle of the most important people of the city.
It seems that the father has taught Socrates, the art of sculpture. Socrates followed the educational process reserved for wealthy (Paideia):
6-12 Music years and grammar (music also served to learn to recognize the sounds of flutes and trumpets that were used to give commands).
12-18 years gymnastics and physical training to prepare young people to fight in close formation (opliti).
The cultural education was imparted dall'erasta (maestro del giovane).
The relationship between student and erasta is ambiguous. On the one hand the Greek society condemned openly homoerotic relationship between student and maestro, but it seems that they were widespread practices.
The growth del giovane passava per due tappe fondamentali:
The delivery of a cup, symbolizing the ability to participate in the Symposium ("Banquets fisolofici").
Delivery is a weapon symbolizing, the ability of the young man in the military.
Made the 18 years became the young adolescent and attended the actual military service up to 20.
To understand the character of Socrates, it is important to frame his life in the historical events of Athens.
The polis had a concentric structure. The city center, surrounded by walls and opposite the marina. the countryside (It cries), as serfs outside the walls. The city center was made from the Acropolis. Essa era la parte più alta della città e il centro della life religious, political and cultural. The agora was instead the most part low, where the local trades took.
The flap poorest city, where they lived artisans and farmers, He was called asty.
It is important to emphasize that in Athens, participation in the life policy by citizens was massive.
Often, the political offices were raffled. Custom, that Socrates He flayed. "It's like lots estraessimo the captain of a ship". For he had the skills that were evaluated. Who was more capable in the administration of a specific function it was to get that position. The democratization of Athens starts calibrates the IX and X ac. . The commercial expansion and colonial Greek allowed a distension of the links between farmers and aristocratic landowners of the land, segnando l’inizio della decadenza dell’aristocrazia terriera e la growth di quella dei commercianti.