Deepen with this thought the brackets enclosing: logic, language is knowledge. We have already shown that the study of the link between these aspects of human culture has been the focus of more recent philosophical reflections.
Let's start by saying that to date there is no perfect theory. In other words, we were unable to achieve a
rational theory unassailable, completely formulated and developed based on logic.
The first attempt to model the language on logic It was done by Frege. The aim was to create a language symbolic ideal and free from psychological components, through which everything could be expressed symbolically and proved logically. Russel, after bitter Frege, showing a fundamental error in its job, It aims to correct it and continue it. After Russel same arena and tries to put the patches in an inherently problematic theory. Simplifying, the problem of the theory of russel It is to be based on the assumption that equates ontological objects logic to those of reality. This brings the world of Platonic ideas in which you create a rift between the sensible object and abstract idea. What is the correspondence between the object and the sensible idea? We do not know and, perhaps, we'll never know. So you can not base a theory that purports to explain everything in a logical and rigorous on this mysterious connection.
The student Russel, Wittgenstein It points out that logical propositions are not that well tautologie. Per Wittgenstein the language It consists of three elements: Tautologie, contradictions and simple propositions. If we say, "It's raining" express the possibility of a fact, This proposition is true if the event happens, Similarly if we say "It does not rain"; Instead the proposition "It's raining or not raining" expresses all the possibilities and it is true regardless of time that makes. This proposition is a tautology. Finally, the proposition "This mother has no children" expresses an impossibility and therefore false, This is a study in contradictions. Contradictions are always false, tautologies always true. For Wittgenstein's Tractatus (his first opera) all the propositions logic are tautologies, "They do not tell anything"Because it does not relate to facts, but express ways possible connection or processing of a sentence in the other: They are linguistic operations that establish
equivalenze (or not equivalences), ie the rules between linguistic expressions on a purely formal. The propositions of logic do not tell anything on reality, but they come to show the ontological properties of 'universe through their formal properties. at this point Wittgenstein continues its search:
How you connect your thoughts with the language?
The thought is given expression in its own underlying linguistica.struttura, "Matrix" of world. in this way, about
truth is the correspondence between logical propositions and states of affairs, between facts and statements. From this it follows that the only authentic utterances are those descriptive, that is, those which have a immediate correspondence with the observable reality. The knowledge It identifies with the language and there is a perfect match (isomorphism) between language and facts (states of affairs) of world. Let outline seven key points of this theory from the same Wittgenstein:
1) The world is everything going;
2) What happens, the fact, is the existence of states of affairs;
3) The logical picture of facts is the thought;
4) The thought is the significant proposition;
5) The proposition is a function of truth elle propositions
6) The general form of the function truth is:[p,x,N(x ) ];
7) Whereof one can not speak, one must be silent. (Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus).
Some readers will be surprised by the last point. The sense is that, as the language depicts the world, it still expresses the limits of 'uomo. There are things you can not talk and it is better not to talk. It follows that the metaphysical is to lose the sense of. Indeed, it may make a logical construct rigorous, They are not able to verify the validity, comparing what they say with the facts. So I can not say with certainty the existence of metaphysical objects, However I can not deny it. because of this, even skepticism comes to fall: "For an answer that you can not make it can not even formulate the question. The riddle does not exist. Be one question can ask, You may well have an answer. Scepticism is not irrefutable, but openly senseless, if you want to question if you can not ask. Because doubt can exist only where there is a question; question, only where there is a
answer; answer, only where something can be said. " (Wittgenstein).