The Natural Science (Natural sciences) hanno determinato nel loro sviluppo il passaggio dal world del pressappoco, to the world della precisione e del rigore. The peculiarities and characteristics of its natural sciences (although it would be appropriate to distinguish between the various disciplines), sono rintracciabili nel loro detachment dall’emotività umana e nella possibilità di disporre della math.
The entrance of mathematics in physics, It has permitted the creation of models that were aware of natural phenomena, with the possibility to make predictions rigorous and precise measurements. A key component for the development of scientific method It has been the introduction of the experimental method from Galileo Galilei, the first to have combined the use of theory and experiment. If we look at the Aristotelian physics, for example, we must note that no page of that discussion has survived the advent of science Modern. The rejection of empiricism by the Greek philosophical culture, has frustrated all the efforts purely mental, oriented with an explanation of natural phenomena. Conversely, the extreme empiricism Leonardo Da Vinci (anche se lo stesso riconosceva grande importanza alla math) lo ha portato ad ideare innovazioni tecnologiche che non avrebbero mai potuto be realizzate con le competenze tecnologiche ed i materiali dell’epoca. Then, He is making a leap of about nineteenth centuries, It moves from pure ideas of Plato the futuristic invention – but sometimes a bit 'bizarre – of Leonardo Da Vinci. Il primo uomo che ha condotto alla riconciliazione tra experience e idea pura è stato Galileo Galilei. Il ragionamento che ha condotto Galileo alla formulazione di un nuovo modo di approcciare i problemi è probabilmente scaturito dalla question: how can I find new laws? how can I determine whether a theory is right or wrong?
Simply observing reality, or better, interrogandola. So the scientist It is no longer a passive observer, but actively creating natural conditions that are easier to understand the same reality. And having made laws, possiamo di nuovo interrogare la natura per know se le leggi teoriche ricavate sono corrette. So, Galileo to build his theories gets help from nature. Nevertheless, it is he who helps nature and made the inclined plane that allows him to study the phenomenon of gravity in a more effective and interpretable, isolating only a part of the totality of phenomena present in the fall of a heavy. It is no longer the reality that you have to adapt to the thought, ma è il pensiero che deve aiutare la realtà a “parlare” il language che gli è proprio. And so fascinating, As mysterious, sembra che anche i fenomeni fisici parlino un language mathematical.
With the introduction of the new scientific method, the results soon followed and this time on will be a succession of discoveries, rebuttals and additions, that will bring natural science to an important progress, able to tow also the development of the technique. the new scientific method It is based on the induction. The inductive method is a process that starts from individual cases seeking to establish a universal law (or as defined by Aristotle, “the process that leads to the universal from the particular” (Topical, I, 12, 105 a 11)). A example,according to a legend, Galileo climbed to the top of the leaning tower of Pisa. After, dalla sommità della torre fece fall simultaneamente delle sfere pesanti e leggere, He is noting that they hit the ground at about the same time. He thus proved, contrary to some ancient claims, that objects (“bodies”) heavy and light fell at the same speed. Without going into details of the theory formulated by Galileo, This anecdote shows how the scientist departed from observations to derive the general laws.
Moreover, with the experiment of the inclined plane, Galileo radically changed the Aristotelian idea of motion, focusing on accelerating, uno stato del moto ignorato da Aristotle e dalla maggior parte dei suoi successori. The inclined plane is an approximate model of reality. in this sense. permette di trovare cosa succede nel case della caduta naturale dei corpi,eliminating or reducing side phenomena (such as friction, wind,...) and allowing you to make precise measurement. Another important characteristic of this kind of experiments is the possibility of repeat. Indeed, can be replicati da altre persone sia in luoghi che in tempi differenti. we too, we are able to make the same experiments that led Galileo and would find the same results.
The success of the natural sciences seems indisputable and scientific progress seems unstoppable, but the time, as always, It puts a strain on everything that meets: also the scientific method non sembra immune da criticism ed insuccessi. The first blow to the ambitions of the natural sciences has been inflicted by David Hume (1711-1776), which put into question the principle of induction.
Bacon had founded his epistemology taking up the ideas of the thinkers of the Italian '400. In The new instrument (1620), Bacon costruisce il primo trattato di logic induttiva dove vengono esaminati i metodi da utilizzare nelle induzioni teoriche. Through the collection of data, their cataloging, interpretation and analysis proceed finally with the induction that allows you to make predictions. The controls are then used to verify the correctness of the same.
Hume calls into question the very process of induction: You can not find any necessary connection between cause and effect, and their bond is not rational, but purely psychological. The assumption is based on the assumption that "necessarily the future comes from the past", It has no demonstrative argument, but it comes only from habit.