Tutte le filosofie e le religions che tentano “di sollevare lo sguardo verso l’alto per osare di raggiungere la truth dell’beʱ?? (John Paul II) can be suddivise in tre grandi correnti: monism, pluralism and dualism.

Before analyzing these three philosophical terms, bisogna cercare di definire la word Be. In brief, l’Be è il fondamento dell’universe fisico e di un ipotetico world sovrasensibile ed immateriale. This alliance between the two worlds will refer to the term "all". L’Be It is the foundation of the Whole, al di fuori di esso non c’è anything. It is due, origin and end of all things. Being is the only substance with real existence.
According pluralism, It is is constituted by a plurality of elements which are based as substances with autonomous existence. In a pluralistic system, there are multiple entities that determine the structure and characteristics of the Whole. These entities have an existence separate and independent from each other. These concepts are the oldest. for example, the religions politeiste, where the forces of nature and those of thought were represented by gods, They are plural.

The dualism It is a special kind of pluralism that considers existence with only two principles. In a dual system there are pairs of opposites that are derived from two plans
(ontologically) separate and everything is attributable to only two kinds of substances. The dualism It is based on the concept of dichotomy. The dichotomy is the division of an entity into two mutually exclusive, that is, such that it can not be true simultaneously, and fully comprehensive, that is, without leaving space for a third part. For example, if taken to a concept you can divide it into two parts B and non-B, then the two parts form a dichotomy, given that no part of B is contained in non-B, and that the sum of B
and non-B does exactly A. Examples of dualisms are dichotomous: fine/male, soul/body, Self / other, object / subject, light / darkness.
The dichotomy stronger dualistic conceptions is fine/male. The main dualistic philosophies tend to identify Being with two universal entities, from which
due forze dicotomiche che danno life alla coppia di principi dualistici fine/male. for example, some religions dualistiche credono nell’esistenza di un it gave malvagio creatore del world materiale e di un it gave spiritual, da cui discende il solo fine.

Other currents derive from the thought fine, from matter the male. In poche words, there is a principle that determines the male and another principle which makes possible the good. For more moderate dualists, the two principles are different, ma compresenti nel world. I monisti dichiarano che la dualità è solo un’illusion. Il terminé monism (O nondualism) It refers to a unitary conception of Being: There is no single underlying principle from which everything arises. Monism expresses the philosophical concept of the essential unity of Being. Monistic conceptions do not deny the multiplicity, but see it as a manifestation of "insubstantial" of a single principle. In occidente, the first to introduce the monism was Parmenides well 2500 Years ago:

“Orbene io ti dirò e tu ascolta attentamente le mie words, quali vie di search sono le sole pensabili; the one and is and is not possible that it is not, It is the path of persuasion, which in truth s'accompagna; the other which is not, and that it is not possible that it is not, I declare that this is a path not viable: why not be nor can you think (it is not possible), nor express it, In fact thinking constitutes exist. " (Parmenides, On Nature). .

In philosophy di Parmenide, Being is thought, and is, therefore, un monism fortemente idealistic.
Il monism assume variously shaped, that can be traced to the following philosophical currents:

1. The Materialism, that only what is physical is real. Ogni cosa proviene quindi dal principio della matter e l’universe si esaurisce in quest’unico principio. in this case, il Tutto è costituito unicamente dall’universe fisico e non esiste alcun world immateriale o spirituale.
Materialists claim that the apparent unity and independence of the mind It is illusory. The mind e le sue “funzioni” derivano da processi fisici.

The duality of good – male last edit: Friday,en,20 June 15:43, 2014 the Nabladue
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