"What's in a name? What we call with the name pink, although the chiamassimo another name, serberebbe pur sempre lo stesso dolce profumo.” Si chiede Giulietta nella famosa tragedia di Shakespeare.
The same question ha occupato ed occupa ancora le menti e gli scritti di Philosophy, linguists and even mathematicians. What will never be a name? It has some connection with the essence of the thing that denotes or is just a convention? What determines its meaning ? È possibile creare un language che sia privo di componenti psicolologiche? A language ideal, on which, the meaning of the sentences possa non be mai frainteso?
Con un articolo rimasto nella history, the logical-mathematical Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) It paved the way for a new reflection on language (oltre ad aver fondato la logic contemporanea) and meaning of names.
Foto di Gottlob Frege
L’articolo inizia con la question: what is the difference in level between cognitive statements a = a and b =, where a and b are names of the same thing? For example what is the difference between "the morning star" and "the evening star", which in fact always indicate the same planet, namely Venus?
Simply with "evening star" go to show that Venus is clearly visible just after sunset, while "morning star", we mean that we can clearly see her just before dawn. The planet is the same, but "morning star" - "Venus" - "evening star" have a different cognitive content: the object identified is identical, but what we get is different.
Prima di mostrare che questa differenza è tutt’altro che trascurabile nella life practice, See you in detail what's different in these three names.
Frege's article 1892 distinguishes between sense (Sinn) is meaning (Importance)a name. The meaning is the object that is named, while the way is the way of "give" of meaning, that is, the perspective from which we view the object. So we'll have a chain that begins with the sign language, passes through the senses and is linked to the meaning that is related to the object itself.
When, instead of taking into account a name, we refer to a statement, il significato è il value of truth (be vero o falso), while the direction is the "thought" that it expresses.
for the first time, the meaning of a sentence It is seen as a function of the meaning of the individual components. The truth di un enunciato deve be indagata a leave from truth delle sue componenti elementari e della loro coordinazione all’interno dell’enunciato generale.
It is important to emphasize that the sense is not the representation. While the meaning is objective, the representation is subjective and depends on the mood of the individual: it is an internal image produced by the subject.
The regular connection between the sign, its meaning and its significance is such that the mark corresponds to a specific position and this, around you, a meaning determined, while a meaning (an item) It does not match a sign only.
The draft Frege was to build a Ideografia that was without flaws and imperfections of natural language. Non vi riuscì ed oggi è acquisito che la “perfezione” non può be reached (as far as we can go to very high levels of rigor).
To do a simpler example, pensiamo di be ad una festa e di notare una ragazza che ci interessa. Ammettiamo che un nostro friend ci dica che la ragazza si chiama Marta, and we boldly try to approach her, until you discover that Marta = “the boxer girl”, that is there with us at the party. Capite che senza questa information aggiuntiva, our safety was in jeopardy. Ma Marta è sempre lei, always that its sweet scent!