Siddharta Gautama He lived between approximately 558 a.C. and the 478 a.C. He was born in the region of Lumbini, in the current southern Nepal. Her family of origin is that of Sakya (in fact it is also called Buddha). the father, Suddhodana, It was the king of one of the many states where it was politically divided North India. Mahamaya, mother Siddharta, amava tutti gli esseri ed era una donna di grande virtue. Fu lei a chiamarlo Siddharta, what does it mean the one that achieves the object.
Queen Mahamaya died soon after giving birth to Siddhartha. the sister, Mahapajapati (Gotami) It grows nephew Siddharta and takes care of him. the child Siddharta It was out of the ordinary. Suddhodana was excited and thought, in Prince Siddhartha, He would find a worthy and valiant heir. However, il re riceve la predizione del maestro Asita: Siddharta will not deal with state affairs. He will become a great maestro spiritual: It will be the one that will indicate the Way.
Knew what, il re tenta di indirizzarlo verso la politica e la life di corte. Try to keep it away from suffering and to let him know the pleasures of life. Tutto questo non serviva a placare l’animo desideroso di knowledge del principe. Egli diventa un ragazzo di grande value. He excelled in many disciplines: dalle martial arts allo studio dei Veda. at the end,the king decided to find a wife for Siddharta, with the intent to permanently divert him from spiritual pursuits. Prince bride Yasodhara, daughter of the king and queen Pamita Dandapani. Unfortunately for the king, anche Yasodhara era una persona di securities non comuni. She aroused the struggle between castes, He opposed to social injustice, era estremamente charitable.
soon after time, ebbero un son di nome Rahula. Attempts father failed. In Siddharta nacque il desidero di trovare le risposte ai problemi dello spirit e del rinnovamento sociale. Instead of loving policy, as the father would have yearned, He began to hate.
Indeed, Siddharta he realized that the people were oppressed by the Brahmans. The society was divided into castes and rigidly determined. The it gave Brahma (one of the three persons of the Hindu trinity, composed by Brahma, Vishnu e Shiva) aveva creato l’universe. He was the creator of all men. The men belonging to a particular caste was established at the time of creation: la parte del corpo del it gave da cui erano stati generati gli uomini determinava l’appartenenza ad una particolare casta.
- Brahmin : come out of the mouth of Brahma, erano i sacerdoti ed i masters che sapevano comprendere i Veda. Essi erano gli intermediari tra l’uomo e la Divinità e, therefore, erano fondamentali per il benessere e la life of society. Anche il world naturale ed il cosmo dipendevano dalle preghiere dei brahmana.
They passed through the four stages of life: youth, where they studied the Vedas. Mature,where he married and raised children at the service of society. Quando i figli divenivano adulti si ritiravano dal world per riprendere gli studi religiosi. Finally, in old age, They became monks or ascetics.
- Ksatriyas: released from the hands of Brahma, They were responsible for the political and military;
- vaisyia: born from the thighs of Brahma, were merchants,farmers and artisans;
- śūdras: born from the feet of Brahma, They were destined for manual labor less noble.
Finally, there were The Untouchables: the outcastes. They had no right and took care of the most lowly tasks: collect garbage, dig up the streets, care of pigs and buffaloes. Moreover, if an untouchable, if only by accident, He came into physical contact with a member of the upper castes, He was beaten violently. Also, those belonging to a high caste, if they were touched by an untouchable, They were contaminated and had to undergo long, tedious and painful purification rites.
Nothing poteva be cambiato: Brahman, la legge dell’universe, It was immutable, infinite, immanent. The it gave Brahma era egli stesso un elemento di quella legge universale. Scriptures (E le Brahmana Upanishad ) taught that happiness It was the ability to accept their condition. L’insegnamento non poteva be messo in discussione. Nonetheless, some people (even some Brahmana )iniziarono ad be dubbiose e si riunirono per dibattere sulla loro religion. The prince often participated in these meetings. On these occasions, venne in contatto con masters spiritual, that, unlike the Brahmins, not yearned nor the riches nor fame. They were not interested in their social status, but sought only Spiritual growth. Abbandonavano tutti i legami con il world materiale per ricercare la liberazione dalla sofferenza. These ascetics They lived in the neighboring regions: Kosala, Magadha.